Gas cooling processes, as well as refrigerating machines and units, which provide these processes, are essential elements of gas industry manufacturing. The specific features of the refrigeration equipment, applied in gas industry, are the following: large unit capacity, a wide application range of compressors (gas-turbine or gas reciprocating ones) gas drives, prior use of air-cooling units in the function of condensers for the refrigerant; an application of cheap refrigerants (basic products and by-products in this industry); a high reliability degree, sufficiently long operational life, and automation maximum level.
Bitzer 4NE-20.F4Y-40S Ecoline Varispeed compressor. Application as part of ground-air heat pump
This article presents the technical characteristics and peculiarities description of Bitzer 4NE-20.F4Y-40S compressor being a part of ground-to-air heat pump (operation principle and application features of this type have been described in previous articles of the series about the equipment given). Continue reading
Application of ground-air heat pumps in HVAC systems of apartment and office buildings. Heat recuperation
The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a cottage is shown in figure 4.2. The HVAC system main elements are central sectional air conditioner, Continue reading
Ground-to-air heat pump
To analyze this type of pump let us consider the example of heat pump with a system of heat take-off from the closed ground (i.e. a cooling medium is circulated in a closed loop, thus taking off the low-grade heat) and with a horizontal ground manifold.
The ground, as known, is the most universal source of dissipated (low-grade) heat, since Continue reading
Water-to-water heat pump. Geothermal heat take-off via apertures
Let us consider an example of the open-type heat pump with low-grade heat take-off system in this article. The ground water, coming into the heat pump evaporator directly from an aperture, is a cooling medium (i.e. a medium, which is cooled down to give off its heat). Continue reading
Air-to-air heat pump
In heat pumps of the given type the aerothermal environmental energy is taken off the outside air and, owing to transformation and transfer, heats the indoor air.
The example of heat pump application is Continue reading
Water-to-water heat pump. Heat take-off from a pond. Technical characteristics of equipment
This article presents the technical characteristics of main equipment, being a part of heat pump from a previous article of the series. It should be reminded that the unit main elements are Bitzer 6JE-33Y-40P semi-hermetic reciprocating compressor of Ecoline series, Bitzer K1353T shell-and-tube condenser, Danfoss EnFusion™ B3-052-90 plate-type evaporator. Continue reading
Water-to-water heat pump. Heat take-off from a pond
In units of the given type the low-grade heat energy is taken off from ponds. The heat take-off is actually performed by laying down a manifold being a system of plastic pipelines. Laying-down is carried out at Continue reading
Efficiency indexes comparison of heat pumps operation depending on the running conditions
The basic index of heat pump performance evaluation is a transformation coefficient COP (abbr. from English “coefficient of performance”). Terms “heat transformation coefficient” and “efficiency factor” are also met.
The COP is determined by the relation between heating capacity and consumed power: Continue reading
Heat pumps. Theory
A heat pump is a device for heat energy transfer from a low-grade heat source to an object to be heated.
The low-grade heat transfer and its “transformation” to the “suitable” temperature range are realized on the principle of refrigerating machine. Continue reading